Translation of mRNA.
Translation of mRNA


In this article, we will discuss about the translation of mRNA (synthesis of proteins from messenger RNA that act as template).It involves three different steps: initiation, elongation and termination. The initiator transfer RNA (tRNA) is necessary for the initiation of the translation. Several elongation factors in the elongation of the template. The initiator tRNA for the eukaryotes is methionine, while for prokaryotes is formyl methionine. When the template reaches to the stop codon, termination occur and both subunits of the ribosomes dispatch from the chain.


Translation of mRNA is a fundamental process in molecular biology that allows the conversion of genetic information encoded in mRNA into functional proteins. This intricate process involves the decoding of the mRNA sequence by ribosomes, which then synthesize proteins according to the instructions provided by the genetic code. Understanding the translation process is crucial for unraveling the complexities of gene expression and has significant implications in various fields, including medicine, biotechnology, and evolutionary biology.


The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Transcription is the first step in this process, where DNA is transcribed into mRNA. The mRNA molecule carries the genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where translation occurs. Translation is the process by which the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.


The genetic code is a set of rules that determines how the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein. It is a universal code shared by all living organisms, with a few exceptions. The code is degenerate, meaning that multiple codons can code for the same amino acid. For example, the amino acid leucine can be encoded by six different codons (UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG). The genetic code also contains start and stop codons, which initiate and terminate protein synthesis, respectively.


Translation involves three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination.


It begins with the binding of the small ribosomal subunit to the mRNA molecule, followed by the recruitment of the initiator tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine. The large ribosomal subunit then joins the complex, forming the functional ribosomes.


It involves the sequential addition of amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain. A specific tRNA molecule contain a specific amino acid, carries to the ribosomes, which recognizes the codon on the mRNA through complementary base pairing. The ribosome catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids, resulting in the elongation of the polypeptide chain.


When a messenger RNA meet with the stop codon, signaling the release of the completed protein and the disassembly of the ribosome. A protein recognize the stop codon and termination occur. The chain of amino acids released from the template and both subunits of ribosomes dispatched.

Mechanism of translation of mRNA.
Translation of mRNA


Translation is a highly regulated process that allows cells to control protein production in response to various internal and external signals. Regulatory elements within the mRNA sequence, such as upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and secondary structures, can influence translation efficiency. Additionally, various proteins and small RNA molecules, known as translational regulators, can bind to specific mRNA molecules and modulate their translation. Dysregulation of translation has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic disorders.


Translation is a remarkable process that enables the conversion of genetic information into functional proteins, playing a crucial role in the functioning of all living organisms. Understanding the intricacies of translation has far-reaching implications in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and evolutionary biology. Continued research in this area will undoubtedly shed light on the complexities of gene expression and pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions.


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Jackson, R. J., Hellen, C. U., & Pestova, T. V. (2010). The mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation and principles of its regulation. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 11(2), 113-127.

Hinnebusch, A. G., & Lorsch, J. R. (2012). The mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation: new insights and challenges. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 4(10), a011544.

Sonenberg, N., & Hinnebusch, A. G. (2009). Regulation of translation initiation in eukaryotes: mechanisms and biological targets. Cell, 136(4), 731-745.

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