In this article, we will discuss about the fascinating types of kidney diseases. Millions of individuals worldwide suffer from kidney illnesses, which have a large impact on morbidity and death. These illnesses can have a range of causes and manifest in different bodily manifestations. The origins and consequences of kidney illnesses will be discussed in this article, along with the significance of early detection and treatment. We will also provide references to learn and acknowledge about the renal infections.


The two bean-shaped organs hidden away in the lower back, the kidneys, are essential to good health. They create hormones necessary for red blood cell synthesis and bone health, balance electrolytes, control blood pressure, and filter waste products. But just like any other organ, the kidneys can develop a number of illnesses that can affect how well they work and cause major health issues.



The progressive loss of kidney function over time is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is frequently brought on by illnesses like glomerulonephritis, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Based on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), there are five stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Stage 5 is the most severe and requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. Levey AS, et al. (2003). Ann Intern Med. 139(2):137-47.


Acute renal failure, sometimes referred to as acute kidney injury (AKI), is a quick deterioration in kidney function that frequently brought on by dehydration, exposure to nephrotoxic medications, or severe infections. AKI can develop quickly, therefore getting medical help right away is necessary to avoid long-term harm. Kellum JA, et al. (2021). Nat Rev Dis Primers. 7(1):52.


A genetic condition known as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is typified by the development of many fluid-filled kidney cysts that have the potential to gradually replace a significant portion of the kidney tissue. Renal hypertrophy, elevated blood pressure, and ultimately renal failure may result from this. Torres VE, et al. (2007). N Engl J Med. 357(21):2216-25.


Hard deposits of minerals and salts inside the kidneys called kidney stones. They come in different sizes and can hurt a lot as they go through the urinary tract. Kidney stones can caused by dehydration, certain medical disorders, and a diet heavy in sodium or oxalates. Khan SR, et al. (2018). Nat Rev Nephrol. 14(5):291-306.


A set of symptoms known as nephrotic syndrome develop when the kidneys release a lot of protein into the urine. It can result in edema, elevated cholesterol, and a higher risk of blood clots and frequently brought on by injury to the glomeruli. Floege J, et al. (2015). Lancet. 386(9999):2139-51.


Kidney disease mostly caused by diabetes mellitus. Long-term high blood sugar levels can harm the kidneys’ tiny blood capillaries, which will eventually reduce their ability to operate. Renal injury or failure may result from high blood pressure’s strain on the kidneys’ blood vessels. On the other hand, hypertension can brought on by renal illness, leading to a vicious cycle. The term “glomerulonephritis” describes inflammation of the kidney’s glomeruli, which serve as filter units. Infections, autoimmune diseases, and other systemic illnesses may be the reason. A hereditary condition known as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is typified by the development of many kidney cysts. These cysts have the potential to affect renal function and eventually cause renal failure.

Kidney damage can result from obstructions in the urinary tract that block the passage of urine, such as kidney stones or tumors. Kidney damage can occur from certain drugs when they used improperly or for an extended length of time. Antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), and contrast chemicals used in imaging examinations are a few examples.


The kidneys’ main job is to filter waste materials and extra fluid from the blood. A accumulation of fluid and toxins in the body results from the kidneys’ decreased capacity to carry out this function when they injured. The body’s equilibrium of fluids and electrolytes, such as calcium, potassium, and sodium, can upset by kidney disorders. The signs of this imbalance include edema, exhaustion, cramping in the muscles, and abnormal heart rhythms. As was previously established, hypertension can both cause and caused by renal problems. The kidneys further harmed by high blood pressure, which starts a deadly cycle that raises the risk of cardiovascular problems.

Erythropoietin is a hormone that healthy kidneys make that encourages the bone marrow to create red blood cells. Erythropoietin synthesis may be compromised in renal illness, which can result in anemia and the accompanying symptoms of weakness and weariness. The equilibrium of minerals in the body, particularly calcium and phosphorus, can be upset by kidney problems. This mismatch raises the risk of osteoporosis and fractures by weakening the bones.


There are many different types of kidney illnesses, each with unique origins, signs, and therapies. In order to avoid problems and maintain renal function, early identification and treatment are essential. Healthcare professionals and individuals may strive toward greater kidney health and improved overall well-being by having a thorough grasp of the many types of renal disorders and the challenges associated with each.


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). (2020). Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease

Levey, A. S., & Coresh, J. (2012). Chronic kidney disease. The Lancet, 379(9811), 165-180. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21840587/

Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., … & Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Guideline Work Group. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382(9888), 260-272. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23727169/

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