In this article, we will discuss about the physiology and anatomy of human eye. The human eye is a spherical organ approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. It composed of several interconnected structures, each with a specific role in the visual process. We will describe the deep anatomy of the eye along with fascinating mechanism of the vision. We will also provide related references to understand the concept deeply.
INTRODUCTION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF HUMAN EYE:
The human eye is a remarkable organ that allows us to perceive the world around us. Its complex structure and intricate functions make it one of the most fascinating organs in the human body. Understanding the physiology and anatomy of the eye is crucial for comprehending how we see and how various eye disorders and diseases can affect our vision. In this article, we will explore the physiology and anatomy of the human eye, shedding light on its remarkable capabilities.
PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF HUMAN EYE:
1. ANATOMY OF HUMAN EYE:
The human eye is a spherical organ approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. It composed of several interconnected structures, each with a specific role in the visual process. The outermost layer of the eye is the sclera, a tough, white, protective layer that maintains the shape of the eye. At the front of the eye, the sclera becomes transparent and forms the cornea, which allows light to enter the eye. Behind the cornea lies the anterior chamber, filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor. The iris, a colored circular muscle, controls the size of the pupil, which is the opening that allows light to enter the eye. The lens, located behind the iris, focuses light onto the retina.
The retina is a thin, delicate layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of specialized cells called photoreceptors, which convert light into electrical signals. The two main types of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods are responsible for vision in low light conditions, while cones are responsible for color vision and visual acuity.
2. PHYSIOLOGY OF VISION OF HUMAN EYE:
The process of vision begins when light enters the eye through the cornea and pupil. The cornea and lens work together to focus the incoming light onto the retina. The cornea refracts, or bends, the light, while the lens adjusts its shape to fine-tune the focus. Once the light reaches the retina, it absorbed by the photoreceptor cells. The rods and cones convert the light into electrical signals, which then transmitted to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries these signals to the brain, where they interpreted as visual images.
ROLE OF BRAIN IN VISION OF HUMAN EYE:
The brain plays a crucial role in processing and interpreting the visual information received from the eyes. It combines the signals from both eyes to create a single, three-dimensional image. The brain also processes information about color, depth, and motion, allowing us to perceive the world around us.
The physiology and anatomy of the human eye are intricate and fascinating. From the transparent cornea to the light-sensitive photoreceptors in the retina, each structure plays a vital role in the visual process. Understanding how the eye works allows us to appreciate its remarkable capabilities and helps us comprehend the causes and effects of various eye disorders and diseases. By delving into the physiology and anatomy of the human eye, we gain a deeper understanding of this incredible organ that serves as our window to the world.
Guyton, A. C., & Hall, J. E. (2006). Textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. https://repository.poltekkes-kaltim.ac.id/1147/1/Guyton%20and%20Hall%20Textbook%20of%20Medical%20Physiology%20(%20PDFDrive%20).pdf
Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (2012). Principles of neural science. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. https://neurology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1049§ionid=59138139
Moore, K. L., Dalley, A. F., & Agur, A. M. R. (2013). Clinically oriented anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766067/