The rapid improvement of the perovskite solar cells has made them rising star of photovoltaic world. It is of huge interest to the academic community. Since there operational methods are still relatively new, there is a great opportunity for further research work. Furthermore it has shown in the past few years; the engineering improvement of perovskite formulation and fabrication routines has led to significant increases in the power conversion efficiency.
The term perovskite and perovskite structure often used interchangeably. Technically, perovskite is a type of mineral that was first found in the Ural Mountains. It named after Lev Perovski. A perovskite structure is any compound that has the same structure as the perovskite mineral. True perovskite composed of calcium, titanium and oxygen in the form CaTiO3. Meanwhile, a perovskite structure is anything that has the generic form ABX3. This section introduces perovskite solar cells, their structure, properties and their potential advantages over traditional silicon based these cells. Perovskite solar cells are type of those cells that uses perovskite material as light absorbing layer. Perovskite materials used in solar cells are typically hybrids, composed of organic cations. Such as; Methyl ammonium(MA+), Formamidinium (FA+), Inorganic elements, such as lead or tin.
ADVANTAGES OF PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS:
ADVANCEMENT IN PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS:
This section highlights the significant advancements in the perovskite solar cells research. Particularly in improving power conversion efficiencies, stability, and scalability. It explores use of innovative materials, device architectures, and manufacturing techniques to enhance the performance of perovskite solar cells.
TUNABLE BAND GAPS FOR ENHANCED EFFICIENCIES:
These cells can be engineered to have tunable band gaps, enabling them to absorb a broader range of sun spectrum. This section discusses the strategies used to optimize the band gaps to achieve higher efficiencies and reduce energy losses in the solar cell.
LOW COST FABRICATION TECHNIQUE:
One of the key advantages of these cells is their compatibility with low cost and scalable fabrication methods. Here, different manufacturing approaches, such as solution processing and printing techniques are explored emphasizing the potential for large scale production.
STABILITY CHALLENGES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:
Despite their remarkable efficiencies, these cells face challenges concerning their long term stability. This section examines the causes of degradation and explores various strategies to enhance the durability of these cells.
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS:
It presents insight into ongoing research and development effort aimed at further enhancing their efficiency, stability, and scalability. Additionally it outlines the challenges that need to be addressed to realize the potential of perovskite technology as dominant force in the renewable energy sector.
TOXICITY CONCERN OF PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS:
Some of these cells contain lead, raising v=concerns about their environmental impact. Researchers are exploring lead-free alternatives to address toxicity issue.
Perovskite solar cells have emerged as a game changer in the sun energy landscape. It is due to their high efficiency, low production costs, and versatility. While there are challenges to overcome, ongoing research and development efforts are continuously improving the technology. As we move forward, these cells hold the promise of providing a cleaner, more sustainable energy source for the future. They have emerged as transformative technology that offers the promise of clean, efficient and affordable energy. Despite facing certain challenges, significant advancement have been made. As the world transitions toward sustainable energy solutions, these cells stand as a beacon of hope for a greener and more sustainable future.
Nayak, P.K.; Mahesh, S.; Snaith, H.J.; Cahen, D. Photovoltaic solar cell technologies: Analysing the state of the art. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2019, 4, 269–285. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41578-019-0097-0
Kabir, E.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, S.; Adelodun, A.A.; Kim, K.-H. Solar energy: Potential and future prospects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 82, 894–900. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032117313485
Lewis, N.S.; Nocera, D.G. Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization. PNAS 2006, 103, 15729–15735. https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.0603395103
Balkan Green Energy News, Global Solar Power to Cross 200 GW Annual Installation Threshold in 2022. 2021. https://balkangreenenergynews.com/global-solar-power-to-cross-200-gw-annual-installation-threshold-in-2022/?msclkid=880a2af4a60611ecbf2601d10dd12670