In this article, we will discuss about the role of nanotechnology in drug delivery. We will also discuss the implications and future perspectives of this technology. Nanotechnology refers to the creation and utilization of materials whose constituents exist at the Nano scale; be up to 100nm. It has potential to revolutionize medical and biotechnology tools and procedures so that they are portable, and easier to administer. Nanoparticles are being used for diverse purposes, from medical treatments, using in various branches of industry such as solar and oxide fuel batteries for energy storage. It also used to wide incorporation into diverse materials of everyday uses such as cosmetics or clothes, optical devices, catalytic, biological labeling and treatment of some cancer.
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. It leads to scientific advancement in many departments such as consumer product, energy and materials. Nanotechnology allows the delivery of drugs that are poorly water soluble and can provide means for bypassing the liver, thereby preventing the first pass metabolism. It is one of the most modern ways for producing improved Nano pharmaceuticals that can combat the problems noted earlier relies on the green synthesis. Nanotechnology and drug delivery basic research focuses on designing new drugs that cross multiple biological barriers to block gilomas growth. It has revolutionized the field of drug delivery by offering innovative solution for targeted and efficient drug administration. It involves the manipulation and engineering of materials at the Nano scale level. https://jnanobiotechnology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12951-018-0392-8
INNOVATION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE:
1. IMPROVED DRUG STABILITY:
Nanoparticles can protect drugs from degradation and improve their stability. By encapsulating drugs within nanocarriers, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, or dendrimers, their susceptibility to degradation to environmental factors can be significantly reduced. This ensures that the drug remains active and effective for longer periods, leading to improved therapeutic outcomes. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00210-022-02245-z
2. ENHANCED BIOAVAILABILITY:
Nanoparticles can improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Many drugs have low solubility, which limit their absorption and distribution within the body. Nanotechnology enables the formulation of drug loaded nanoparticles with the increased surface area, allowing for better drug dissolution and absorption. This enhances drug bioavailability and ensures the higher proportion of the administered dose reaches the target site.
3. TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY:
One of the most promising aspects of nanotechnology in drug delivery is its ability to achieve targeted delivery. Nanoparticles can be engineered to specifically target diseased tissue or cells while minimizing their impact on healthy tissues. This is typically achieved through the use of ligands or antibodies attached to the surface of nanoparticles, which recognize or bind to specific receptors or makers present on the target cell. Targeted drug delivery reduces: Side effects, improves therapeutic efficacy and allows for lower drug doses.
4. CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE:
Nanoparticles can be designed to release drug in controlled manner, providing sustained or pulsatile drug release profiles. By modifying the nanoparticles structure or using responsive materials, drug release can be triggered by specific stimuli, such as changes in pH, temperature, or enzymes concentrations at the target site. Controlled release ensures optimal drug concentrations over an extended period, reducing the frequency of administration and enhancing patient compliance.
5. COMBINATION THERAPY:
Nanotechnology enables the development of combination therapies by incorporating multiple drugs or therapeutic agents into a single nanoparticle formulation. This approach allows for synergic effects, where the combined action of different drugs leads to enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Furthermore, Nano carriers can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making combination therapies more feasible and convenient.
In terms of future perspectives, nanotechnology holds immense potential for further advancements in the drug delivery. Researchers are actively exploring new nanomaterials, such as Grapheme, Carbon nanotubes, and metal organic frameworks. To develop more efficient and targeted drug delivery system. Additionally, advancements in the nanofabrication techniques and Nano scale engineering are expected to contribute the development of more precise and versatile drug carriers. However, it is important to note that translation of nanotechnology-based drug delivery system from the laboratory to clinical practice faces several challenges.
This includes: Safety concerns, Scalability of manufacturing processes, Regulatory considerations, Cost effectiveness. Overcoming these hurdles will require continued research, collaboration between academia and industry, and regulatory frameworks that facilitate the development and commercialization of nanotechnology enabled drug delivery systems.
In conclusion nanotechnology has already made significant contribution to drug delivery innovation, offering improved drug stability, enhanced bioavailability, targeted delivery, and controlled release. Its future looks promising, with potential advancement in materials, fabrication techniques, and personalized medicine. However, addressing challenges related to safety, manufacturing and regulation will be crucial for realizing the full potential of nanotechnology in the pharmaceuticals industry.
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