Methods of transgenation in animals and plants.
Methods of transgenation in animals and plants


In this article, we will discuss about the methods of transgenation in plants and animals. It is also called genetic engineering. Transgenation is the process in which a foreign DNA inserted in an organism. The animals and plants in which foreign gene inserted are called transgenic. Several useful products obtain from these genetic engineered plants and animals. For example: growth hormones, milk and other products. We will discuss the several several methods of genetic engineering with references.


Transgenation, also known as genetic engineering or genetic modification. It is a powerful tool that allows scientists to introduce specific genes into the DNA of organisms. This technique has revolutionized the fields of agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology by enabling the production of genetically modified animals and plants with desired traits. This article aims to explore the various methods used for transgenation in animals and plants, highlighting their advantages and limitations.



Pronuclear microinjection is one of the earliest and most widely used methods for transgenation in animals. In this technique, a foreign DNA construct, containing the desired gene, injected into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg. The injected embryos then implanted into a surrogate mother for development. This method successfully used to generate transgenic mice, rats, and other small animals.

Process of pronuclear microinjection.
Process of pronuclear microinjection


Retroviral transduction involves the use of retroviruses as vectors to deliver foreign genes into the genome of target cells. The retrovirus modified to carry the desired gene and then used to infect the target cells. The viral DNA integrates into the host genome, resulting in stable expression of the transgene. This method particularly useful for transgenation in stem cells and used to create transgenic pigs and other large animals.

Process of retroviral transduction in animals.
Process of retroviral transduction in animals


Somatic cell nuclear transfer, also known as cloning, involves the transfer of the nucleus of a somatic cell into an enucleated egg cell. The resulting embryo carries the genetic material of the donor cell and genetically modified before implantation. SCNT has used to generate transgenic animals, including sheep, cows, and pigs, with specific genetic modifications.

Process of somatic cell nuclear transfer in animals.
Process of somatic cell nuclear transfer in animals



Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used method for transgenation in plants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium, naturally transfers a portion of its DNA, known as the T-DNA, into the plant genome. Scientists can modify the T-DNA to carry the desired gene and then use Agrobacterium to infect plant cells. The T-DNA integrates into the plant genome, resulting in the expression of the transgene. This method has been successfully used to generate transgenic crops, such as soybeans, corn, and cotton.

Process of agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants.
Process of agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants


Biolistic particle delivery, also known as gene gun transformation. It involves the use of microscopic gold or tungsten particles coated with the desired gene. These particles are shot into plant cells using a high-pressure helium gun. The particles penetrate the cell wall and deliver the foreign DNA into the nucleus, where it integrates into the plant genome. This method has been used to generate transgenic plants, including wheat, rice, and tobacco.

Process of biolistic particle delivery in plants.
Process of biolistic particle delivery in plants


CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary genome editing tool that allows scientists to precisely modify specific genes in plants. This technique involves the use of a guide RNA (gRNA) that directs the Cas9 enzyme to the target gene. The Cas9 enzyme then cuts the DNA at the desired location, allowing for the insertion, deletion, or modification of specific gene sequences. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used to create transgenic plants with improved traits, such as disease resistance and increased yield.

Process of CSISPR-Cas9 genome editing in plants.
Process of CSISPR-Cas9 genome editing in plants


Transgenation methods have greatly advanced our ability to modify the genetic makeup of animals and plants. These techniques have enabled the production of genetically modified organisms with desired traits, leading to significant advancements in agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. As technology continues to evolve, it is likely that new and more efficient methods of transgenation will emerge, further expanding our capabilities in genetic engineering.


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