In this article, we will discuss about the translation of mRNA (synthesis of proteins from messenger RNA that act as template).It involves three different steps: initiation, elongation and termination. The initiator transfer RNA (tRNA) is necessary for the initiation of the translation. Several elongation factors in the elongation of the template.Continue Reading

In this article, we will discuss about the molecular basis of diabetes, that is caused by mutations in beta cells of pancreas. Diabetes is of two types: type I that is due to deficiency of insulin. Type II that is genetically inherited. We will discuss about the genetic factors and pathways to the causes of disease. Several environmental factors also effect the beta cells to cause the disease.Continue Reading

In this article, we will discuss about the transcription of DNA (synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA). The process of transcription is regulated by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. One of the two strands of DNA acts as the coding strand and is identical to the single-stranded RNA. The other strand acts as the non-coding strand, complementary to RNA, and acts as a template for the synthesis of mRNA.Continue Reading

In this article, we will discuss about the transposons, also called transposable elements. These elements are short repeated sequences found in the jumping genes. Transposons excise from the donor site and insert at the target site. It disable the function of the gene temporarily. We will discuss several types of transposons and mechanism of these elements.Continue Reading

In this article, we will discuss about the chromosomal mutations that manipulate the functions of several genes. Several types of mutations in the chromosomes causes different disabilities, such as mutation in chromosome number 7 causes blue monochromacy (blue color blindness). We will also discuss the implications and effects of these mutations.Continue Reading

In this article, we will discuss about the process of DNA replication, that reveals the blueprint of life. In the DNA, there is origin of replication from where replication starts. In prokaryotes, only one origin of replication is present. For instance; replication region in yeast is called OriC., that is composed of several short repeated sequences. In eukaryotes, several origin of replication are present.Continue Reading

DNA fragmentation and analysis play a crucial role in understanding the genetic code and its implications in various fields such as medicine, forensics, and evolutionary biology. By studying the fragmentation patterns and analyzing the DNA sequences, scientists can gain valuable insights into genetic disorders, identify individuals, and trace evolutionary relationships.Continue Reading

The discovery of chromosomes stands as one of the most significant milestone in the field of biology. These thread like structures, found within the nucleus of every living cell, contain the genetic information that determines an organism’s characteristics. This groundbreaking revelation has revolutionized our understanding of genetics, heredity and the fundamental mechanism of life itself. In this article, we will dive into the history of discovery of chromosomes, highlighting the key milestones and the scientists who played vital roles in revealing the complexities of life.Continue Reading

The human genome project is one of the most significant scientific innovation in the history, aiming to unravel the complete sequence of human genome. It was launched in 1990, this international research has revolutionized our understanding of genetics, paving the way for groundbreaking achievements in medicines, biology and personalized healthcare. This article explores the key objectives, achievements and implications of the human genome project.Continue Reading

In the field of molecular biology, the polymerase chain reaction has emerged as a groundbreaking technique, that has revolutionized the way scientists study and manipulate DNA. It was developed in 1980s by Kary Mullis, PCR has become an indispensable tool in various areas of research, including genetics, forensics, medicines and biotechnology. This article will explore the principles behind PCR, its applications and its impact on scientific achievements.Continue Reading