In this article, we will discuss about the fascinating anatomy of human respiratory system. The complex network of tissues and organs that make up the human respiratory system is in charge of transferring oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. Human respiratory system consists of organs such as nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, pharynx, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. The structural and functional unit of lungs is alveoli. We will also provide related references to understand the concept deeply.
INTRODUCTION OF ANATOMY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
The human respiratory system is a complex network of organs and tissues responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. Understanding the anatomy of this vital system is crucial for comprehending its functions and the various respiratory disorders that can affect it. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the anatomy of the human respiratory system, supported by relevant references.
ANATOMY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
1. NASAL CAVITY:
The nasal cavity is a hollow space located behind the nose and in front of the skull. It divided into two sides by the nasal septum. The walls of the nasal cavity lined with a mucous membrane that contains numerous blood vessels and small hair-like structures called cilia. The nasal cavity is responsible for filtering, warming, and humidifying the air we breathe. It also contains olfactory receptors that help with the sense of smell.
The pharynx, commonly known as the throat, is a muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and larynx. It divided into three parts: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The pharynx serves as a passage for both air and food. It plays a crucial role in swallowing, as it helps propel food from the mouth to the esophagus and prevents it from entering the airway.
The larynx, also known as the voice box, is located in the neck region between the pharynx and trachea. It composed of cartilage structures, including the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) and the cricoid cartilage. The larynx houses the vocal cords, which are responsible for producing sound during speech and singing. It also acts as a protective mechanism by closing off the airway during swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering the lungs.
The trachea, commonly referred to as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure that connects the larynx to the bronchi. It composed of C-shaped rings of cartilage that provide structural support and prevent the trachea from collapsing. The inner lining of the trachea lined with ciliated cells and mucus-producing cells, which help trap and remove foreign particles and debris from the respiratory system.
5. BRONCHIAL TREE:
The bronchial tree refers to the branching network of airways that extend from the trachea into the lungs. It starts with the primary bronchi, which branch into smaller secondary bronchi, then further divide into tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and finally, terminal bronchioles. The bronchial tree lined with ciliated cells and mucus-producing cells, similar to the trachea, to help remove foreign particles and keep the airways clean.
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system and are located in the thoracic cavity. They divided into two lobes on the left side and three lobes on the right side. The lungs composed of spongy tissue and surrounded by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The bronchial tree extends into the lungs, where it further divides into smaller bronchioles and eventually ends in tiny air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the bloodstream. The lungs also surrounded by a network of blood vessels that facilitate the exchange of gases.
CONCLUSION-ANATOMY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
Understanding the anatomy of the human respiratory system is essential for comprehending its functions and the various respiratory disorders that can affect it. This article has provided a comprehensive overview of the anatomy of the respiratory system, highlighting the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. The references cited in this article serve as valuable resources for further exploration and study of the human respiratory system.
Proctor DF, Carpenter RG. The nasal airway in health and disease. Part I. Anatomy, physiology, and function. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1982;91(4 Pt 1):364-371. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6350406/
Kim JH, Kim JH, Kim YH, et al. Anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses for endoscopic sinus surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2018;29(2):e117-e120. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883520/
Gray H. Anatomy of the Human Body. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1918. https://openlibrary.org/books/OL24786057M/Anatomy_of_the_human_body
Weibel ER. Morphometry of the Human Lung. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1963. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-87553-3
Ochs M, Nyengaard JR, Jung A, et al. The number of alveoli in the human lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169(1):120-124. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14512270/